Учебно-методические комплексы дисциплин

  • разработаны в полном объеме
  • находятся у преподавателей, ответственных за дисциплину

 

 

ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК (АНГЛИЙСКИЙ)

Рекомендации магистранту по усвоению программы учебной дисциплины «Иностранный язык»

 

Спецификой дисциплины «Иностранный язык» для магистрантов, обучающихся по специальности 010900.68 Механика, является её непрофильное изучение с ограниченным количеством (108) (9, A, B семестры) часов практических занятий. В связи с этим данный курс предполагает максимальную активизацию когнитивных, мнемических, креативных потенций обучающихся по усвоению программы учебной дисциплины «Иностранный язык». Для усвоения магистерского курса «Иностранный язык» требуется исходное владение данной дисциплиной в объёме вузовского курса на базовом уровне подготовки.

I этап (9 сем. – 36 час.) изучения иностранного языка включает систематизацию знаний по иностранному языку, полученных в вузе (1. 2, 3, 4 сем.). Магистрантам рекомендуется:

• повторить основные явления всех лингвистических уровней изучаемого языка, усвоить их принципиальные сходства и различия;

• на основе анализа сравнивать изучаемые явления в двух языках, а также в триаде: иностранный - русский - родной;

• освоить основные приемы работы со спецтекстами (развернутого содержания);

• научиться систематически заниматься иностранным языком.

Основным требованием, предъявляемым к знаниям магистрантов на II этапе (A сем. –36 час.) изучения иностранного языка, является наличие коммуникативной компетенции, необходимой для иноязычной деятельности по изучению и творческому осмыслению зарубежного опыта в профилирующей и смежных областях науки, а также для делового общения. В связи с этим обучающимся рекомендуется:

• учиться внимательно относиться к содержанию речи; языковым средствам и способам выражения мысли;

  перерабатывать учебный материал и излагать его в соответствии со своей коммуникативной интенцией;

• усвоить закономерности перехода от письменной формы речи к устной

и наоборот;

• освоить основные приемы работы со спецтекстами (усложненного содержания) с постепенным добавлением усложняющих элементов лексико-грамматического и стилистического характера.

На конечном этапе изучения иностранного языка (B сем. – 36 час.) рекомендуется:

• овладеть основными приёмами работы со спецтекстами повышенно сложного содержания;

• расширять и углублять арсенал языковых средств для восприятия иностранной речи, для высказывания по профессиональным темам и обсуждения спецтекста;

• научиться работать со специальной литературой в определенных видах работ по профилирующим дисциплинам (аннотации, рефераты, выступления на семинарах, доклады на конференциях, проектные работы, диссертационные исследования);

• научиться общим приемам использования иностранного языка в работе по специальности по следующим направлениям:

1) как источника информации, необходимой для непосредственной работы по специальности;

2) как средства коммуникации с зарубежными партнерами;

3) как средства медиативной деятельности в области данной специальности;

4) как основы для дальнейшего специального образования в России и за рубежом.

Инициальный тест

 

Вариант 1

 

1.    I … a book now.

а) read    

b) is reading   

c) am reading 

d) have read

 

2.    I … your friend yesterday.

a) seed    

b) saw            

c) had seen     

d) see

 

3.    Next summer our family … to Switzerland.

a) would go

b) will go

c) went   

d) going

 

  1. The book … about. It … a best-seller.

a) is much spoken         has become

b) speaks                     becomes

c) is speaking               became

d) spoke                       is becoming

 

  1. I … you a lift if you … me to repair the car.

a) will give                   will help

b) will give                   help

c) give                         help

d) am giving                 will help

 

6.    If this book were not interesting, it … so popular!

a) was not

b) were not

c) would not

d) wouldn’t be

 

7.    He heard somebody … him.

a) called  

b) is calling     

c) was calling 

d) call

 

8.    Make the plural form of the word “mouse”

a) mice

b) mousse

c) mices

d) –

 

9. Who is ... tallest boy in your group?

a) the

b) a

c) –

d) an

 

10.                     His ... room is very comfortable.

a) –

b) the

c) a

d) an

 

  1. Will you go … school … Sunday?

a) in                 on

b) to                 at

c) to                 on

d) in                 in

 

12.                     … I have a look at your newspaper?

a) Could

b) Must

c) Ought to

d) Need

 

13.                     I … speak French really well when I lived in Paris.

a) can

b) had to

c) would

d) could

 

14.                     Whose bag is it? – It’s … .

a) my

b) hers

c) him

d) me

 

15.                     I like Fred, the friend of … .

a) you

b) their

c) yours

d) her

 

16.                     Выразите равнодушие

a) Bless you

b) I don’t care

c) Thank you

d) Don’t mind it

 

17.                     Поблагодарите за услугу

a) You are welcome

b) Sincerely yours

c) It was kind of you

d) I beg you pardon

 

 

 

Вариант 2

  1. The train … at  3.30.

a) arrives         

b) will arrives   

c) has arrived  

d) is arriving

 

  1. Look! It … .

a) snows

b) snowed

c) is snowing

d) snow

 

  1. I … to the cinema to the film “Harry Potter” tomorrow.

a) will go

b) went

c) go

d) have gone

 

  1. She … on by a famous surgeon. Soon she … .

a) operates                   recovered

b) was operated            recovered

c) was operated            was recovered

d) operated                   will recover

 

  1. I … dinner after I … my hands.

a) am having                am washing

b) had                          washed

c) will have                  will wash

d) will have                  wash

 

  1. If I had been to London, I … the Tower.

a) would have visited

b) will visit

c) had visited

d) would visit

 

  1. I saw the boys … with each other

a) fighting

b) was fighting             

c) fought

d) are fighting

 

8.      Make the plural form of the word “tooth”

a) –

b) teeth

c) toothes

d) teeths

 

  1. I have … computer at home.

a) a

b) –

c) the

d) an

 

10. ... coffee is very hot.

a) a

b) –

c) the

d) an

 

11. Will you go   school … Monday?

a) in                 on

b) to                 at

c) to                 on

d) in                 in

 

12.                     you tell me what time is it now?

a) Must

b) Should

c) Could

d) Need

 

13.                     You really … stop smoking, you know. It’s bad for you.

a) must

b) are to

c) should

d) can

 

  1. Whose car is it? – It’s … .

a) my

b) me

c) mine

d) I

 

  1. I love my parents and you love … .

a) yours

b) you

c) your

d) their

 

  1. Подбодрите друга.

a) Take it easy!

b) Bless you!

c) I am glad to see you!

d) It is so nice of you.

 

  1. Ваш друг болен. Пожелайте ему скорого выздоровления.

a) Get better!

b) Good bye!

c) See you soon.

d) I wish you were with me.

 

 

PRACTICE I

http://www.sciencedaily.com/

Experiment sets the ultimate test for Newton’s laws

 

A physicist in Australia has come up with an experiment that could potentially reveal a flaw in Newton's law of gravitation. If the flaw exists, it would be the first evidence in support of theories that explain the movement of galaxies without having to introduce "dark matter".

For the past 70 years or so, physicists have been bothered by a nagging question: why do the centres of galaxies rotate too fast for the amount of mass we can see through telescopes? The most popular answer is that most of the mass is hidden in large bands of "dark matter", a substance that is invisible because it doesn't interact strongly with light. If it exists, dark matter could account for 95% of the mass in galaxies, and would explain many other aspects of the universe.


However, a lack of evidence for dark matter has led a small camp of physicists to promote an alternative answer: the gravitational force that holds galaxies together decays more gently with distance than presently estimated, meaning that Newton's law of gravitation is not quite as simple as an inverse-square relationship. The theory, which is known as modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), proposes adding extra factors to Newton's 300-year-old equations so that the gravitational behaviour only alters at very low accelerations. Unfortunately the turmoil of gravitational forces produced in the galaxy means that such accelerations are hard to come by, leaving proponents of MOND with no easy way to test their theory.

However, Alex Ignatiev from the Theoretical Physics Research Institute in Melbourne claims to have predicted instances on the Earth where most of these forces will cancel out. Ignatiev first considered how an object at rest in the centre-of-mass of our galaxy would appear to be accelerating when viewed from a laboratory on Earth. This involved listing all the major accelerations such as the Earth's rotation around the Sun and the Sun's orbit in our galaxy. He then looked for solutions where all of the accelerations add up to zero.

The solutions indicated that, on either of the two annual equinoxes, there will be two places on the Earth's surface where the force cancellation occurs. For example, on the equinox of 22 September 2008, one will be in the far north of Greenland and the other will be on the opposite side of the world in Antarctica (see figure: "X marks the spot"). Ignatiev says that if a gravitational wave detector is set-up to monitor a static test object at one of these times and places, it might just be able to glimpse a tiny, 0.2 × 10-16 m deflection over a period of 0.5 ms – what he calls "SHLEM" (static high-latitude equinox modified inertia). If SHLEM is observed, it would be the first evidence in support of MOND.

"Even if the result were negative it would be a very significant step forward, because an interesting theory would be ruled out," Ignatiev told Physics Web. "But if the predicted SHLEM effect were observed – well, we'd have to rewrite our most basic theories."

 

T A S K S

I. Vocabulary tasks

 

1. Translate the text into Russian.

2. Write out the meanings of the words in a bold type.

3. Find the antonyms of the words in a bold type if possible.

 

II. Grammar tasks

 

1. Find the sentences with the Passive Voice.

2. Find the sentences with the Infinitive.

 

III. Speaking

 

Give the main points of the text in English.

 

PRACTICE II

http://www.sciencedaily.com/

Quantum Mechanics Demonstrated in Motion of Objects Large Enough to See With Naked Eye

ScienceDaily (Apr. 7, 2010) — Researchers at UC Santa Barbara have provided the first clear demonstration that the theory of quantum mechanics applies to the mechanical motion of an object large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Their work satisfies a longstanding goal among physicists.

In a paper published in the March 17 issue of the advance online journal Nature, Aaron O'Connell, a doctoral student in physics, and John Martinis and Andrew Cleland, professors of physics, describe the first demonstration of a mechanical resonator that has been cooled to the quantum ground state, the lowest level of vibration allowed by quantum mechanics. With the mechanical resonator as close as possible to being perfectly still, they added a single quantum of energy to the resonator using a quantum bit (qubit) to produce the excitation. The resonator responded precisely as predicted by the theory of quantum mechanics.

"This is an important validation of quantum theory, as well as a significant step forward for nanomechanics research," said Cleland.

The researchers reached the ground state by designing and constructing a microwave-frequency mechanical resonator that operates similarly to -- but at a higher frequency than -- the mechanical resonators found in many cellular telephones. They wired the resonator to an electronic device developed for quantum computation, a superconducting qubit, and cooled the integrated device to temperatures near absolute zero. Using the qubit as a quantum thermometer, the researchers demonstrated that the mechanical resonator contained no extra vibrations. In other words, it had been cooled to its quantum ground state.

The researchers demonstrated that, once cooled, the mechanical resonator followed the laws of quantum mechanics. They were able to create a single phonon, the quantum of mechanical vibration, which is the smallest unit of vibrational energy, and watch as this quantum of energy exchanged between the mechanical resonator and the qubit. While exchanging this energy, the qubit and resonator become "quantum entangled," such that measuring the qubit forces the mechanical resonator to "choose" the vibrational state in which it should remain.

In a related experiment, they placed the mechanical resonator in a quantum superposition, a state in which it simultaneously had zero and one quantum of excitation. This is the energetic equivalent of an object being in two places at the same time. The researchers showed that the resonator again behaved as expected by quantum theory.

 

T A S K S

I. Vocabulary tasks

1. Translate the text into Russian.

2. Find the words easily translated without a dictionary.

 

II. Speaking

Give the main points of the text in English.

 

PRACTICE III

http://www.sciencedaily.com/

'Spooky Action At A Distance' Of Quantum Mechanics Directly Observed

ScienceDaily (Mar. 4, 2009) — In quantum mechanics, a vanguard of physics where science often merges into philosophy, much of our understanding is based on conjecture and probabilities, but a group of researchers in Japan has moved one of the fundamental paradoxes in quantum mechanics into the lab for experimentation and observed some of the 'spooky action at a distance' of quantum mechanics directly.

Hardy's Paradox, the axiom that we cannot make inferences about past events that haven't been directly observed while also acknowledging that the very act of observation affects the reality we seek to unearth, poses a conundrum that quantum physicists have sought to overcome for decades. How do you observe quantum mechanics, atomic and sub-atomic systems that are so small-scale they cannot be described in classical terms, when the act of looking at them changes them permanently?

In a journal paper published in the New Journal of Physics, "Direct observation of Hardy's paradox by joint weak measurement with an entangled photon pair," authored by Kazuhiro Yokota, Takashi Yamamoto, Masato Koashi and Nobuyuki Imoto from the Graduate School of Engineering Science at Osaka University and the CREST Photonic Quantum Information Project in Kawaguchi City, the research group explains how they used a measurement technique that has an almost imperceptible impact on the experiment which allows the researchers to compile objectively provable results at sub-atomic scales.

The experiment, based on Lucien Hardy's thought experiment, which follows the paths of two photons using interferometers, instruments that can be used to interfere photons together, is believed to throw up contradictory results that do not conform to our classical understanding of reality. Although Hardy's Paradox is rarely refuted, it was only a thought experiment until recently.

Using an entangled pair of photons and an original but complicated method of weak measurement that does not interfere with the path of the photons, a significant step towards harnessing the reality of quantum mechanics has been taken by these researchers in Japan.

As the researchers write, "Unlike Hardy's original argument, our demonstration reveals the paradox by observation, rather than inference. We believe the demonstrated joint weak measurement is useful not only for exploiting fundamental quantum physics, but also for various applications such as quantum metrology and quantum information technology."

T A S K S

I. Vocabulary tasks

 

1. Translate the text into Russian.

2. What words can’t be easily grasped from the context?

 

II. Grammar tasks

 

1. Find all the compounds in the text.

2. Find the Past Participles.

 

III. Speaking

 

Give the main points of the text in English.